(da Wikipedia)

- Valvole:

"Vacuum tubes may be used for rectification, amplification, switching, or similar processing or creation of electrical signals."

"Vacuum tubes were critical to the development of electronic technology, which drove the expansion and commercialization of radio communication and broadcasting, television, radar, sound reproduction, large telephone networks, analog and digital computers, and industrial process control. Although some of these applications had counterparts using earlier technologies, such as the spark gap transmitter or mechanical computers, it was the invention of the triode vacuum tube and its capability of electronic amplification that made these technologies widespread and practical."

Vacuum tube

- Transistor:

"A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and power. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit."

"The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things."


- Circuiti integrati:

"An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as IC, chip, or microchip) is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material."

"Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of production of integrated circuits."

Integrated Circuit